- Perfect English Grammar Com Past Continuous
- Www.perfect-english-grammar.com Past Continuous Mixed Exercise 2
- Perfect English Grammar Com Past Continuous Simple
The Past Perfect Continuous is another tense that expresses the 'past in the past'.
In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Past Perfect Continuous tense, followed by a quiz to check your understanding.
The past perfect continuous is made from had been and the -ing form of a verb: I had been working there for a year. They had been painting the bedroom. The past perfect is used in the same way as the present perfect, but it refers to a time in the past, not the present. We use the past perfect. EnglishClub: Learn English: Grammar: Verbs: Tense: Tenses: Past Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous. The Past Perfect Continuous is another tense that expresses the 'past in the past'. In this lesson we look at the structure and use of the Past Perfect Continuous tense, followed by a quiz to check your understanding. Do the exercises below on the past perfect simple and continuous and click on the button to check your answers. (Before doing the exercises you may want to read the lesson on the past perfect simple and continuous) Write the past participle of the following irregular verbs.
Perfect English Grammar Com Past Continuous
How do we make the Past Perfect Continuous tense?
The structure of the Past Perfect Continuous tense is:
|subject||+||auxiliary have||+||auxiliary be||+||main verb|
|conjugated in Past Simple||past participle|
The first auxiliary verb (have) is conjugated in the Past Simple, invariable: had
The second auxiliary verb (be) is invariable in past participle form: been
The main verb is invariable in present participle form: -ing
For negative sentences we insert not after the first auxiliary verb.
For question sentences, we exchange the subject and the first auxiliary verb.
Look at these example sentences with the Past Perfect Continuous tense:
|subject||auxiliary verb||auxiliary verb||main verb|
Contraction with Past Perfect Continuous
When we use the Past Perfect Continuous in speaking, we often contract the subject and the first auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this in informal writing.
|I had been||I'd been|
|you had been||you'd been|
|he had been|
she had been
it had been
|we had been||we'd been|
|they had been||they'd been|
- He'd been drinking all day.
- It'd been pouring with rain.
In negative sentences, we may contract the first auxiliary verb and 'not':
- We hadn't been living there long.
- They hadn't been studying very hard.
How do we use the Past Perfect Continuous tense?
The Past Perfect Continuous tense is like the Past Perfect tense, but it expresses longer actions in the past before another action in the past. For example:
- Ram started waiting at 9am. I arrived at 11am. When I arrived, Ram had been waiting for two hours.
|Ram starts waiting in past at 9am.|
|I arrive in past at 11am.|
|Ram had been waiting for two hours when I arrived.|
Www.perfect-english-grammar.com Past Continuous Mixed Exercise 2
Here are some more examples:
- John was very tired. He had been running.
- I could smell cigarettes. Somebody had been smoking.
- Suddenly, my car broke down. I was not surprised. It had not been running well for a long time.
- Had the pilot been drinking before the crash?
You can sometimes think of the Past Perfect Continuous tense like the Present Perfect Continuous tense, but instead of the time being now the time is before.
For example, imagine that you meet Ram at 11am. Ram says to you:
- 'I am angry. I have been waiting for two hours.'
Later, you tell your friends:
- 'Ram was angry. He had been waiting for two hours.'
Do you know how to use phrases like They'd finished the project by March or Had you finished work when I called?
Look at these examples to see how the past perfect is used.
He couldn't make a sandwich because he'd forgotten to buy bread.
The hotel was full, so I was glad that we'd booked in advance.
My new job wasn't exactly what I’d expected.
Try this exercise to test your grammar.
- Grammar test 1
Read the explanation to learn more.
Time up to a point in the past
We use the past perfect simple (had + past participle) to talk about time up to a certain point in the past.
She'd published her first poem by the time she was eight.
We'd finished all the water before we were halfway up the mountain.
Had the parcel arrived when you called yesterday?
Past perfect for the earlier of two past actions
We can use the past perfect to show the order of two past events. The past perfect shows the earlier action and the past simple shows the later action.
When the police arrived, the thief had escaped.
It doesn't matter in which order we say the two events. The following sentence has the same meaning.
The thief had escaped when the police arrived.
Note that if there's only a single event, we don't use the past perfect, even if it happened a long time ago.
The Romans spoke Latin. (NOT
The Romans had spoken Latin.)
Past perfect with before
We can also use the past perfect followed by before to show that an action was not done or was incomplete when the past simple action happened.
They left before I'd spoken to them.
Sadly, the author died before he'd finished the series.
We often use the adverbs already (= 'before the specified time'), still (= as previously), just (= 'a very short time before the specified time'), ever (= 'at any time before the specified time') or never (= 'at no time before the specified time') with the past perfect.
I called his office but he'd already left.
It still hadn't rained at the beginning of May.
I went to visit her when she'd just moved to Berlin.
It was the most beautiful photo I'd ever seen.
Had you ever visited London when you moved there?
I'd never met anyone from California before I met Jim.
Do this exercise to test your grammar again.
- Grammar test 2
Perfect English Grammar Com Past Continuous Simple
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