Grammar-Quizzes › Verb Phrases › Verb Groups › Present Perfect › Up to now
We use the simple present tense when an action is happening right now, or when it happens regularly (or unceasingly, which is why it’s sometimes called present indefinite). Depending on the person, the simple present tense is formed by using the root form or by adding ‑s or ‑es to the end. Present tense definition: The present tense signals an action that is currently going on or habitually performed. What is Present Tense in English? What does past tense mean? The present tense of verbs expresses events or actions that are occurring now, relative to the speaker—or to actions that are habitually performed and may not necessarily be happening right now. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE — NOW; The present progressive tense is used for current activities. That is, the action is ongoing or temporary, exists now, but may change in the future.
Express duration from past to present
Past vs. Present Perfect 'up to now'
A verb in the past tense expresses that an activity, event or state began and ended in the past. Adverbs such as last year, a year ago and in 2017 make clear that the activity is pinned to a time in the past. See Past Adverbs.
|COMPLETED IN PAST|
Construction on the Tower of Pisa started in 1173.
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Builders added a third story in 1185. Then, it began to lean.
It leaned 5.5º before the renovation. It leaned only 3.99º after the renovation.
The soil foundation failed under the tower in 1185.
Officials closed the tower during the 1990s.
The tower was reopened in 2001.
|PRESENT PERFECT 'UP TO NOW'|
A verb in the present perfect may express that an activity began in the past and continued up to the present (and may extend into the future.) Adverbs so far, up to now and to date make clear this past-to-present timing.
|FROM PAST TO PRESENT MOMENT|
The Tower of Pisa has leaned to the south since its third story was added in 1178. It has continued to lean up to now.
Its lean has remained unchanged up to now.
Engineers have gradually reduced the lean by 14 centimeters so far.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa has not leaned any farther so far.
The project has received $30,000,000 to date.
fail (V) – lose strength, become weak
lean (V) – to be at an angle that is not upright at 90º; lean (N) the difference in degrees from the upright 90º angle.
foundation (N) – the base upon which something sits
'The Leaning Tower of Pisa.' towerofpisa.org/tower-of-pisa-historical-facts/
Every language has its different grammatical rules for time tenses. The verb words in English are inflected with the suffixes (-ed, -ing, -s) to indicate time (present, future, past, etc). ASL has its own grammatical rules for time tenses in different ways
In an English sentence, 'she gave me a hug last year', the past tense for 'give' has to be 'gave'. It can be considered as redundant or tautological in ASL sense; however, it's not incorrect in English. In ASL (like some other spoken languages), the sign 'last-year' is already a past tense itself: LAST YEAR SHE HUG ME.
The signer uses an imaginary time line as a time indicator to express a relative measurement of how recent/distant past or future is. Space, movement, repetition, and facial grammar are common signifiers in expressing a time measurement.
If there is no past or future tenses mentioned in a ASL sentence, it may indicate the present tense. The present tense is used when the action is general and the action happens all the time in general.
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The following ASL words are the examples of indicating the present time or in general: 'tend-to', 'always', 'every-day', etc.
The structure for positive sentences in English in the past tense is: subject + main verb (past). For negative sentences, it is: subject + auxiliary verb (did) + not + main verb (base). She hugged me.
In ASL, the terms for the past tense are PAST and PAST+ (see the image), YESTERDAY, LONG-PAST, LAST-YEAR, etc. These show the space beyond the shoulder into the past.
Off the point: These glosses in capital letters mean glosses, not translation. I've seen students mouthing 'PAST' when signing. It's not 'past' in English. Ignore the glosses that are not suitable for translation. Glosses are for the sake of writing down notes. The glosses only represent the signs. The sign PAST can mean 'in the past' or even 'before' in English translation. But, there are two different concepts of 'before' thus two different ASL words (signs). So how do you write down a gloss for 'before'. That's why we use PAST for that particualr ASL sign even when it is equivalent to 'before' as in 'I've seen the movie before', not as in 'I need to see you before you leave.' Think ASL when speaking ASL, not thinking English words when speaking ASL words. ASL is not words nor English. It's a language.
Some ASL terms for the future tense are: WILL, TOMORROW, NEXT-WEEK, FROM-NOW-ON, NEXT-YEAR, and so on.
The sign-word WILL (left) shows a regular or standard movement forward from the boundary line of shoulder.
On the other hand in the ASL word FUTURE (right), the signer can modify the length of movement to describe a distance of future. The mouth morpheme AAH indicates a distant future. Wiggling fingers also indicates a very distant future along with mouthing AAH.
Present Continuous Tense
The continuous tense is also known as progressive tense. The structure of the present continous tense in English is: subject + auxiliar verb (am, are, is) + main verb (base + ing). In ASL, the present continuous tense is indicated in contexts of conversation, when the action is happening, using NOW, RIGHT-NOW, STILL, and such.
Present And Past Tense Words
Present Perfect Tense
The structure of the present perfect tense in English is: subject + auxiliary verb (have, has) + main verb (past participle). She has hugged me. The common ASL terms to indicate the present perfect tense are, in glosses,: FINISH/ALREADY, ALWAYS, SINCE.
'I've wanted to visit Japan for years.' ASL: IX-me ALWAYS WANT++(modulated verb) VISIT JAPAN (SINCE MANY YEAR).
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
Present Now Tense
The structure for the present perfect continuous tense in English is: subject + auxiliary verb (have, has) + auxiliary verb (been) + main verb (base + ing). English: She has been hugging me.
Now Present Perfect Tense
In ASL, temporal aspects are used to modulate the verbs. Some common ASL continuous forms are: ALL-DAY, SINCE, etc. along with modulated verbs. This requires a separate post on this subject.